How to Make Parmesan Cheese (Italian Hard Cheese) at Home

How to Make Parmesan Cheese (Italian Hard Cheese) at Home

Well good day curd nerds. Today, we’re going to be making Parmesan Well Parmesan or better known as Parmigiano-Reggiano is from the Lombardi area in Italy and It is a very well known cheese, well known all the way, all the w- (stutter) all around the world for its piquant flavor. And it is just amazing when shaved and when grated It is a common ingredient in a lot of pasta dishes sprinkled over the top Or in other dishes as well. Essential ingredient in basil pesto as well. A delicious cheese, so let’s see how we make it shall we? So initially I had an issue trying to get 2% fat milk, so what I had to do was use a combination of milk, so this is a 1.3 percent fat milk, it’s a light milk, so I used 10 liters of that and I also used 4 liters of full cream milk which is about 3.3 percent. So they gave me a grand total of 14 liters of milk, which is 14 quarts at 2% fat. I used 3/8 of a teaspoon of thermophilic culture an 1/8 of a teaspoon of lipase, 3/4 of a teaspoon of calcium chloride 3/4 of a teaspoon of liquid rennet, and I was using iron Cu 200 rennet, and 18% saturated brine solution. So once the pot is full we’re going to bring that up to heat now, and the target temperature is 33 degrees Celsius or 91.4 Fahrenheit. So I’m just making sure that’s evenly heated all the way through before I go to the next step. So I’m going adding the thermophilic culture So I used 3/8 of a teaspoon, so I’m using an 1/8 of a teaspoon there. Just sprinkling it over the top of the, uh- 2% fat milk. Now Parmesan is very special in that you do use a lower fat percentage of milk to get the flavor that you’re after, after a very long period of time for ripening. Now we just let this starter culture sit on the top for about five minutes, just allowing it to rehydrate. Pop the lid on so no dust or hair gets into your cheese, and then five minutes later give that a good stir, top and bottom just making sure that there’s nothing in there. Giving it a good mix all the way through so the starter culture can start converting the lactose in the milk into lactic acid. Pop the lid back on and we’re gonna ripen the milk now for 45 minutes. So 45 minutes later you can start to add one of the essential ingredients to making parmesan a piquant flavor. Just checked the temperature first. Yes, we’re at, uh, close enough to 33 degrees Celsius, which was 91.4 Fahrenheit. Make sure you check your temperatures regularly. Now we’re going to add the lipase. Lipase is a pre-gastric enzyme that creates the piquant flavor in Parmesan if you’re not using raw milk. Now because I’m using pasteurized and homogenized I’ve had to add in lipase to this recipe. Okay, I gave that a good stir through. Now we’re gonna cover again and let that ripen again for 15 minutes. Okay 15 minutes later, and we’re gonna add in the rest of the ingredients now. Before I do, I’m gonna give it a quick stir So, there we go- so make sure the milk is moving and then we’re gonna add in the diluted calcium chloride. It was diluted with a quarter of a cup of non-chlorinated water. The reason we’re using non-chlorinated water is because it does inhibit the renneting action, when we add the rennet in, in the next step. So just a non-chlorinated water, that can be filtered water or pure water, just make sure it doesn’t have any chlorine in it. We’re adding the rennet now. That’s diluted rennet as well. And we give it a stir for no more than one minute Reason we don’t over stir this is because the rennet is actually starting to work right now. Don’t want to break up the protein structure of the milk. Now one additional step – you can see that the milk is moving a little bit too fast here so I’m gonna slow that down and try and stop it, before we put the lid on and allow it to set. There we go, I’ve stopped most of the movement. This helps the rennet set a lot better as well. Okay, then we cover and we’re gonna lay out the milk to coagulate now into its component curds and whey, for 45 minutes. So 45 minutes later we’re gonna check for a clean break. We can do that with our pinky. Now, have a look at the break there. It’s a little bit sloppy. It’s not as defined as it should be, it didn’t have a clear line down the middle. So what we’re gonna do there is we’re gonna allow it to coagulate a little bit more for another 10 minutes. So I normally do this if I find that the break is a bit sloppy Okay, so ten minutes later. We’re just gonna check it again. Now that’s splitting very well now, just a little bit shouldn’t be on there, but that’s a lot better than what it did the first time. So what we’re going to do now is we’re going to cut the curds. Now Parmesan’s a funny beast, the curd size needs to be very small to start with. So we’re going to cut it into lentil sized pieces. Now I found that the best way to do that is to use a balloon whisk, and simply, um, lift it up and down, as you can see there. And we’re basically cutting the curds quite small to start with. So you’ve gotta go around many many times to make sure that it is cut correctly and there’s no large pieces. You don’t want any uneven pieces of curd for this recipe because they will hold more way than what the smaller pieces do and that’ll affect the final texture of your Parmesan. Now I’ve left the entire process in for this video because I think it’s very important for you to see that I am actually cutting larger pieces of curd as they come to the surface while I start to stir it. There’s no healing time for the curds, the amount of time we had for ripening and renneting certainly allowed those curds to have a very firm structure as well as the addition of the calcium chloride which adds back soluble calcium that the, uh, the rennet can act upon. So we’re going to heat this up now, and we’re gonna start stirring for quite a long time. We’re just checking the temperature first, There’s some issues with my thermapen there. Anyway there we go. She’s on. So over the course of the ripening and the renneting it has cooled down by 2 degrees Which is okay, that’s no hassle. We have to heat it up now anyway, to shrink the curds even further. So I’m gonna start stirring and over the course of an hour we’re gonna slowly heat it up to 51 Celsius, Which is 124 Fahrenheit. So that’s over the period of one hour, and you do have to stir continuously. You have big muscles after this one. So sit back, play some music and enjoy the stirring or, um, break out a glass of wine if you so desire. Certainly helps with a stirring process. Okay, this is at the 31ish minute mark, you can see that a lot more whey has been expelled, and that the curds are a lot smaller. We’ll just uh, you should see that in a second, there we go. So those shrunk considerably from the lentil size pieces that they were originally. So an hour later, we’re at nearly 51. That was close enough as far as I was concerned. I didn’t really want to go over temperature. And you’ll see that the curd size now is about the size of a rice grain. It has shrunk considerably. Now just gonna do a quick test to make sure it’s ready for pressing. So you clump a handful of curds together if they form a ball, and then you can just press them apart with your thumb, then they’re ready to press. Great little test before you do start pressing. Okay, so that’s all the stirring, all the heating we need to do, the heat is now off. And we’re going to put the lid back on. I’m going to allow the curds to- alright, final temperature check, okay, close enough to 51 for my liking. Okay, we’re gonna allow the curds now to sink to the bottom and settle for 5 minutes. So take your big pot over to the sink area and we’re gonna drain that through a cheesecloth-lined basket, now the basket I’m using is the largest one I have which is 165 millimeters across, which at the same as 6.5 inches. So just pour that through. So that does two purposes, that heats up the basket, just warms it a bit so cold curds don’t hit it. I’ve also sprayed the, uh, cheesecloth with a very fine mist of white vinegar. Now this helps avoid the Parmesan from sticking to the cheesecloth because it’s very hot at this stage, still, you know, 51 odd degrees Celsius, which is quite high. It has a tendency to stick to the cheesecloth when you press it so, a little spritz of vinegar- white vinegar, helps it come away cleanly. Just adjusts the pH level, and you don’t have any stickiness, so there’s a tip. Okay. So now I’m just pressing that down, so it all fills the mold evenly, and then I’m gonna fold the cheesecloth over the top of the basket. Just squeezing a bit of whey out there. And then we’re gonna top with the follower. Never put the follower directly onto the cheese because that may stick to the follower as well. This gives it a nice even surface. See I’m pulling out the cheesecloth a little bit there to make sure that there’s no folds. Popping it into the cheese press now, and we’re gonna press this at about a medium pressure, just initially to make it form into the the shape that we’re after. So just make sure when you’re pressing that the whey runs clear, and not cloudy. So initial pressing is 11 kilograms or 24 pounds for 30 minutes. Just on that whey: if it is cloudy when it’s coming out then you’re over pressing it, because it’s releasing too much of the proteins that you need in the cheese for the flavor to develop. So make sure it’s fairly clear as you press it. So, 30 minutes later. We’re going to take it out of the press now. Lifting the follower out there and just releasing it from the mold now, very gently. We’re going to be pulling the cheesecloth away. So this is still quite warm in the mold so I’m releasing it carefully. It did stick just a little bit just there, you can see, that the the cheese- a little bit of the surface of the cheese pulled away, so all good, all the rest of it came off okay. That little spritz of vinegar helped. So we’re just carefully pulling away the bottom, no tears there at all, which is really good. So we’re just gonna flip that over now. And just redress it and repress it at 22 kilograms or 50 pounds for 12 hours. This is to help consolidate the curds, make sure they’re evenly pressed all the way through, and that you’ll have no mechanical holes in your cheese when it’s finished. So I’m using a 50 pound spring so when it’s all closed up I know I’m at the the right weight or the right pressing weight. Now because I am using a spring I did have to go on check and re-close it up again as the cheese began to knit together- all the curds began to knit together. Okay, the next day for me. Now we get to brine the cheese, so I’m using an 18% saturated brine there. We’re gonna remove the cheese from the cheesecloth and press (laughs) Sorry, remove the cheese from the press and the cheesecloth. So you don’t have to be as careful as before. You will find that the cloth doesn’t stick as much, in fact it didn’t stick it all in this instance for me. And it is a very heavy cheese, it is, uh, very compact, so. There was no ridges or anything like that so, felt really good. So we’re gonna pop it into the brine now for 18 hours, and we’re gonna turn at the halfway mark at 9 hours. Now my brine bucket there was rather full. You don’t have to brine in one of these containers, you can use a stainless steel pot and pop it in there, just make sure that if it keeps floating to the top just sprinkle a surface of cheese salt over the top of the- of the cheese, that’s floating and then when you flip it over do the same thing again. Okay so it sits there in the brine and uh, I put it back in the cheese cave so it was at 13 degrees Celsius. Okay, so once it’s finished brining you take it out of the of the brining tub and put it on, just a draining mat and a board and that’s going to air dry now at room temperature for 2-3 days or until touch dry. Now it did take two days for mine to air dry. Until I was happy it was air dry. There we got a nice looking cheese, very compact, as all good Parmesan should be. So just to keep the beasties off it I’ve got this lovely little umbrella thing that I pop over the top so Nothing can get onto to my cheese. Certainly don’t want a kazoo marzu. Alrighty so once it’s touch dry I’m basically going to mature this for 6-12 months at 10-12 degrees Celsius. And we’re going to turn that weekly now. That’s at, uh, 82… Sorry, 85 to 90 percent relative humidity. So in the first week turn daily. So as you can see fairly easy process. It’s the stirring for an hour that gets your arm I tell you what. I’ve got some muscles now. But uh, we’re going to put this into a ripening box and we’re going to mature it for between 6 to 12 months. The cheese is small, probably six months, the flavor will be there. I have matured Parmesan up to 18 months, and it has turned out amazing a little bit dry though. We’re gonna try and ripen it naturally, so a natural rind for at least the first 3 months keeping it nice and clean, and then I may have to vacuum pack it to keep the moisture in, it’s a fairly small cheese unlike the Parmesans that’s made in Italy which are about 60-70 kilograms which is very heavy. We’re going to keep it at a temperature of between 10 and 12 degrees Celsius. And we’re going to do that at between 85 and 90 percent humidity in the ripening box for those 3 months After that, vac packing doesn’t matter what the humidity of your cheese fridge will be. At a pinch you could wax it, however I find when you wax cheeses for a long time they tend to get a mold growth under them, so that’s why I’m going to prefer to vac pack it once it’s got a natural rind. Anyway, don’t forget that you could buy the kit for this, we have an Italian cheese kit, and you can buy that in our store. Also, don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see new and interesting cheese content and that you can support us also via Patreon. Thanks for watching curd nerds, and we’ll see you next time.


  1. Hi, Gavin, beside being Italian I am also from the Parma region, and as a young boy I’ve help in a Parmigiano cheese factory. I am very impress with the cheese making process you have shown in the video. In a small scale it represents, right down to the temperatures used, on what is happening in the factory. I cannot understand some of the negative comments you received, some individuals are just idiots. Of course, yours is not THE Parmigiano Reggiano, but so what? You have made a cheese that resembles the original and I am also sure it tastes good. On being precise, the making of Parmigiano cheese is controlled all the way to the actual feed the cattle get and with favoring the evening milking vs morning milking. So again, good job on what you have done, and opinionated people….shame on you.

  2. Why are people gatekeeping some cheese. We get it, you're Italian, but no one who clicked on this video cares that he didnt make it in Italy.

  3. Hi Gavin, I am Italian and I have to say your recipe it's really a great recipe. Please don't listen to the noisy people criticizing you, you indeed are a great guy with outstanding knowledge. I would like to share with you a humble suggestion. In the video you say you mixed 10 lt of 1.3% fat + 4 lt of 3.3% fat, that means a resulting 14 lt solution with around 1.87% fat. For you to obtain a better target of 2% fat milk, you could test with 9 lt of 1,3% + 5 lt of 3.3% fat. That should make the whole concentration up a little bit, resulting in 2.01 % fat. Any way you did a great great great job. Regards.

  4. Italian warriors that have never even entered the Parmigiano Reggiano factory are the funniest people on the internet.

    Fate ridere i polli. Voi al massimo avete letto gli ingredienti dietro al formaggio ed avete la faccia tosta di venire qui ad insultare questo povero uomo che fa dei formaggi in casa??? ripigliatevi va… e leggete la descrizione del video : Cheeses imitating Parmigiano Reggiano (like this version I've made).

  5. When I pay $12.99 a pound at Trader Joe's for Imported Reggiano, I can now appreciate all that goes into making that spectacular cheese. $12.99 doesn't hurt so much now. Awesome Presentation. Thanks! Very detailed, Very thorough. Direct and to the point. Thanks Again!!! PS. Now I know why I don't like Imitation Parmesian from Pizza Hut etc. Their stuff is Cardboard.

  6. Thanks for a wonderful video. Inspired me to try it and I did BUT. I accidentally air dried first. I put it into a brine. Should I let it sit an extra day or 2 maybe and I will be putting this in my spare fridge to age. I turned that all the way down to its lowest setting and i cant get it below 45 degrees. What will that do to the process? Also whats the best way to get humidity int his situation? Thanks again. I really enjoy your videos. Keep up the great work.

  7. My husband is Italian, born and raised and I would love río surprise him by making him some parmesan cheese.
    Do you mind telling me where I can buy everything that you used? Thank you and GOD bless❣🙏

  8. You should make a Non Dairy Parmesan Cheese version if possible? with like Almond/cashew/cocunt or similar milk or what ever will work.

  9. Wow. That is a very involved and dedicated process! I appreciate the time you took to share this with us. If only I had the time and counter space…

  10. Followed this recipe and everything came out the way it looks in the video. It took 3 days to dry on the counter and during the last half of the first week in the cheese cave I've noticed what I can only describe as bubbles appearing on the surface of the cheese. It's appearing on the top of the cheese. I noticed this about 4 days into flipping the cheese, the top prior to flipping had some bubbles like it was rising to the surface in a viscous liquid. I thought I may have just gotten some of the texture from the cheese mold and checked the other side (now top after flipping) and didnt have any bubbles. The next day though when I flipped, I noticed the bubbles on that side now too. I'm still flipping but curious if this means there's unexpected activity or what would cause the issue. I make chocolate too, and this appears the exact same as air bubbles look after chocolate has appeared into the mold. However my cheese is solid, so I cant really vibrate or otherwise coax the air bubbles out. It's only showing on the top surfaces, not the sides.

  11. As good that looks and probably tastes. The problem to taste genuine are the bacteria. Lot's of cheese and raw ham tastes like it does because of the bacteria and the climate of the region.
    That's why cheese is made almost the same way all over the world and it tastes different because of it's origin.

  12. Interesting and well done … would love to see the final product cut and also to know the weight of the final product, in order to study the economics behind such an effort and understand if it is worth it or just stick to the store bought version.
    Do not get me wrong. I love everything homemade (I make my own sourdough bread, sausages, kefir, mayonnaise, etc.). However, something like this Parmesan Cheese, which requires months of waiting before being able to enjoying the results, it is something I struggle to wrap my head around to.

  13. I suppose that you should really be calling this Parmesan STYLE cheese as the Italians (and many other European countries) have registered the names as belonging to a distinct region of manufacture.

  14. 14 لتر (14 كغم) حليب أبقار خالي الدسم جزئيًا 2٪ دهون

    3/8 ملعقة صغيرة من الحرارة بالحرارة

    1/8 ملعقة صغيرة من الليباز في 2 ملعقة كبيرة ماء

    3.75 مل (3/4 ملعقة صغيرة) كلوريد الكالسيوم في 1/4 كوب ماء

    3.75 مل (3/4 ملعقة صغيرة) سائل في 1/4 كوب ماء

    18 ٪ محلول ملحي مشبع

  15. The mechanics of this presentation are spot on. I make cheese at home and I'm familiar with the methods. The one thing I disagree with is working with Low Fat Milk. Our ancestors did not have reduced fat cheese, so why do this?

  16. I'm an Aussie also, we all call is Par-Mar-Son here. Why say sarn? Are you worried that you will be comment destroyed? We have our way of saying stuff. Why change to suit the rest of the world…

  17. Hi Gavin, does your cheese produce the same dry, grainy texture of Reggiano Parmigiano? I was reading a website that was quite scientific on Reggiano and they say the cheese is aged 18-24 months at 18C [64 F] Tx for sharing your info and experience!

  18. Those so impatient, who can't imagine waiting so long for cheese…I can tell you, the goal isn't just about eating the cheese. The goal becomes the real joy you experience by eating and sharing with others something of quality you made yourself! But I fear my giving in to impatience is giving in to an "instant gratification" society we've become, and that bothers me. Not saying I avoid conveniences, but rather it seems better to marvel at the reconnection instead of marveling at the inconvenience. I imagine what if our ONLY choice for the heat under that milk pot had to be kindled first, and the milk needed had to be squeezed from the cow first. For some in the world today it's true, and a well stocked kitchen means your rennet comes from a leathery dry pouch hanging from a nail in the kitchen rafter – a calves stomach – and a chunck would be sliced from it to throw into the milk pot.

    But even in a modern society it does us well to appreciate the "slow food" way of living once in a while, instead of our fast-food habits. We've too conveniently lost our connection to hand-made food and the land it comes from. Cheese, as well as our meat, doesn't "come from" a plastic wrapped container in the store. It comes from grass, grown from a region's unique soil, eaten by a cow, then laboriously prepared. Cheese has to age and beef has to grow. The best things are those we work for with patience and then savor the results. The art of cheesemaking is one of them. Every step has a level of finess which he demonstrated. We've forgotten that art of "preparation" in our lives, doing something that will not gratify us right away but make us wait for when the time is right. This simple video is a great reminder to me of that. Though I do admit, it would have been a great conclusion to see the end result sliced and savored – the payoff of patience.

    My only question is this… Gavin, can you perhaps indicate the source of the additives? Not where you got them, but which of them come from animal sources – is the rennet the traditional calf-rennet, or can a vegeterian rennet be used also? I ask for kosher reasons. I'm not a vegeterian. If I'm not mistaken, the aged hard cheeses usually need the calf rennet.

  19. As the name says Parmigiano Reggiano is from the area around Parma and Reggio Emilia that ARE NOT in Lombardi region. The Region name is Emilia Romagna and Lombardi doesn't mean anythig the Region name is Lombardia and they don't make Parmigiano Reggiano. I'm from Reggio Emilia BTW

  20. Meanwhile in Eastern Europe we have vending machines where you can get fresh not pasteurised milk and pasteurised milk can get to 4% fat.

    I dunno if this this bad or good.

  21. Watch out Gavin the Regional Cheese Name Task Force has you on their radar now! great video, have you ever cooked down the whey to make ricotta?

  22. I've made cheese at home. Heat milk until almost boiling, add coagulant and press in cheese cloth. But this is on another level. I warms the heart so see a man with this much passion for his craft.

  23. Obviously you dont know much about making pesto either………you really do not know much about the Italian culinary culture if you think pesto is made with parmesan cheese….look up the real recipe on how to make pesto…….

  24. Hey Gavin, I love your videos. I've recently stumbled upon them as I'm gearing up to attempt my first cheese soon. What size pot did you use here? I've got a 14 quart stock pot but I'm wondering if it'll need to be bigger as I'm betting it's 14 quarts up to the rim.

  25. I'm not real keen on using low fat anything and was wondering why the low fat / 2% milk was required? Thanks, a very detailed, clear approach. It is the cheese that I mostly eat and it is expensive.

  26. me: oh boy, look! a parmesan cheese recipe video! probably some italian dude is gonna present the recipe for me 😀 … **dude talks** ''GOOD'AYE MAYTE!!'' …. also me: @[email protected] my god…. this is one hell of a plot subversion but judging by that wooden clock he sure seems to know what hes doing!!!'' … bhwahahhahaha.. on a side note, great video lululul!

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