Are we born to run? | Christopher McDougall

Are we born to run? | Christopher McDougall


Running: it’s basically just
right, left, right, left, yeah? I mean, we’ve been doing it
for two million years, so it’s kind of arrogant to assume
that I’ve got something to say that hasn’t been said and performed
better a long time ago. But the cool thing about running,
as I’ve discovered, is that something bizarre happens
in this activity all the time. Case in point: A couple months ago,
if you saw the New York City Marathon, I guarantee you, you saw something
that no one has ever seen before. An Ethiopian woman named Derartu Tulu
turns up at the starting line. She’s 37 years old. She hasn’t won a marathon
of any kind in eight years, and a few months previously, she had almost died in childbirth. Derartu Tulu was ready to hang it up
and retire from the sport, but she decided she’d go for broke and try for one last big payday
in the marquee event, the New York City Marathon. Except — bad news for Derartu Tulu —
some other people had the same idea, including the Olympic gold medalist, and Paula Radcliffe, who is a monster, the fastest woman marathoner
in history by far. Only 10 minutes
off the men’s world record, Paula Radcliffe is essentially unbeatable. That’s her competition. The gun goes off, and — I mean,
she’s not even an underdog; she’s, like, under the underdogs. But the under-underdog hangs tough, and 22 miles into a 26-mile race, there is Derartu Tulu,
up there with the lead pack. Now, this is when something
really bizarre happens. Paula Radcliffe, the one person
who is sure to snatch the big paycheck from Derartu Tulu’s under-underdog hands, suddenly grabs her leg
and starts to fall back. So we all know what to do
in this situation, right? You give her a quick crack
in the teeth with your elbow and blaze for the finish line. Derartu Tulu ruins the script. Instead of taking off, she falls back and she grabs
Paula Radcliffe, and says, “Come on.
Come with us. You can do it.” So Paula Radcliffe,
unfortunately, does it. She catches up with the lead pack and is pushing toward the finish line. But then she falls back again. The second time, Derartu Tulu
grabs her and tries to pull her. And Paula Radcliffe, at that point,
says, “I’m done. Go.” So that’s a fantastic story,
and we all know how it ends. She loses the check, but she goes home with something
bigger and more important. Except Derartu Tulu
ruins the script again. Instead of losing, she blazes
past the lead pack and wins. Wins the New York City Marathon, goes home with a big fat check. It’s a heartwarming story, but if you drill a little bit deeper, you’ve got to sort of wonder
about what exactly was going on there. When you have two outliers
in one organism, it’s not a coincidence. When you have someone who is more
competitive and more compassionate than anybody else in the race,
again, it’s not a coincidence. You show me a creature
with webbed feet and gills; somehow water’s involved. Someone with that kind of heart,
there’s some kind of connection there. And the answer to it,
I think, can be found down in the Copper Canyons of Mexico, where there’s a reclusive tribe,
called the Tarahumara Indians. Now, the Tarahumara
are remarkable for three things. Number one is: they have been living essentially
unchanged for the past 400 years. When the conquistadors arrived
in North America you had two choices: you either fight back and engage
or you could take off. The Mayans and Aztecs engaged, which is why there are very few
Mayans and Aztecs. The Tarahumara had a different strategy. They took off and hid in this labyrinthine, networking,
spider-webbing system of canyons called the Copper Canyons. And there they’ve remained
since the 1600s, essentially the same way
they’ve always been. The second thing remarkable
about the Tarahumara is: deep into old age — 70 to 80 years old — these guys aren’t running marathons; they’re running mega-marathons. They’re not doing 26 miles, they’re doing 100, 150 miles at a time, and apparently without injury,
without problems. The last thing that’s remarkable
about the Tarahumara is: all the things we’re going
to be talking about today, all the things we’re trying to use
all of our technology and brain power to solve — things like heart disease
and cholesterol and cancer; crime, warfare and violence;
clinical depression — all this stuff — the Tarahumara don’t know
what you’re talking about. They are free from all
of these modern ailments. So what’s the connection? Again, we’re talking about outliers; there’s got to be some kind
of cause and effect. Well, there are teams of scientists
at Harvard and the University of Utah that are bending their brains
and trying to figure out what the Tarahumara have known forever. They’re trying to solve
those same kinds of mysteries. And once again, a mystery
wrapped inside of a mystery — perhaps the key to Derartu Tulu
and the Tarahumara is wrapped in three other
mysteries, which go like this: Three things — if you have the answer,
come up and take the microphone, because nobody else knows the answer. If you know it, you’re smarter
than anybody on planet Earth. Mystery number one is this: Two million years ago,
the human brain exploded in size. Australopithecus
had a tiny little pea brain. Suddenly humans show up,
Homo erectus, big old melon head. To have a brain of that size, you need to have a source
of condensed caloric energy. In other words, early humans
are eating dead animals — no argument, that’s a fact. The only problem is, the first edged weapons only appeared
about 200,000 years ago. So somehow, for nearly two million years, we are killing animals
without any weapons. Now, we’re not using our strength, because we are the biggest
sissies in the jungle. Every other animal
is stronger than we are, they have fangs, they have claws,
they have nimbleness, they have speed. We think Usain Bolt is fast. Usain Bolt can get
his ass kicked by a squirrel. We’re not fast. That would be an Olympic event: turn a squirrel loose,
whoever catches it gets a gold medal. (Laughter) So no weapons, no speed,
no strength, no fangs, no claws. How were we killing these animals?
Mystery number one. Mystery number two: Women have been in the Olympics
for quite some time now, but one thing that’s remarkable
about all women sprinters: they all suck; they’re terrible. There’s not a fast woman on the planet
and there never has been. The fastest woman
to ever run a mile did it in 4:15. I could throw a rock
and hit a high-school boy who can run faster than 4:15. For some reason,
you guys are just really slow. But — (Laughter) But, you get to the marathon
we were just talking about — you’ve only been allowed to run
the marathon for 20 years, because prior to the 1980s,
medical science said if a woman tried to run 26 miles —
does anyone know what would happen if you tried to run 26 miles? Why you were banned
from the marathon before the 1980s? Audience Member: Her uterus would be torn. Christopher McDougall:
Her uterus would be torn, yes. Torn reproductive organs. The uterus would literally
fall out of the body. (Laughter) Now, I’ve been to a lot of marathons, and I’ve yet to see any … (Laughter) So it’s only been 20 years that women have been allowed
to run the marathon. In that very short learning curve,
you’ve gone from broken organs up to the fact that you’re only 10 minutes
off the male world record. Then you go beyond 26 miles,
into the distance that medical science also told us
would be fatal to humans — remember Pheidippides died
when he ran 26 miles — you get to 50 and 100 miles,
and suddenly, it’s a different game. You take a runner like Ann Trason
or Nikki Kimball or Jenn Shelton, put them in a race of 50 or 100 miles
against anybody in the world, and it’s a coin toss who’s going to win. I’ll give you an example. A couple years ago,
Emily Baer signed up for a race called the Hardrock 100, which tells you all you need
to know about the race. They give you 48 hours
to finish this race. Well, Emily Baer — 500 runners — she finishes in eighth place,
in the top 10, even though she stopped
at all the aid stations to breastfeed her baby during the race. (Laughter) And yet, she beat 492 other people. The last mystery: Why is it that women get stronger
as distances get longer? The third mystery is this: At the University of Utah,
they started tracking finishing times for people running the marathon. What they found is that if you start
running the marathon at age 19, you’ll get progressively
faster, year by year, until you reach your peak at age 27. And then after that,
you succumb to the rigors of time. And you’ll get slower and slower, until eventually you’re back to running
the same speed you were at age 19. So about seven, eight years
to reach your peak, and then gradually you fall off your peak, until you go back to the starting point. You’d think it might take eight years
to go back to the same speed, maybe 10 years — no, it’s 45 years. 64-year-old men and women are running as fast
as they were at age 19. Now, I defy you to come
up with any other physical activity — and please don’t say golf —
something that’s actually hard — (Laughter) where geriatrics are performing
as well as they did as teenagers. So you have these three mysteries. Is there one piece in the puzzle
which might wrap all these things up? You’ve got to be careful anytime
someone looks back in prehistory and tries to give you
a global answer because, it being prehistory, you can say
whatever the hell you want and get away with it. But I’ll submit this to you: If you put one piece in the middle
of this jigsaw puzzle, suddenly it all starts
to form a coherent picture. If you’re wondering
why the Tarahumara don’t fight and don’t die of heart disease, why a poor Ethiopian
woman named Derartu Tulu can be the most compassionate
and yet the most competitive, and why we somehow were able
to find food without weapons, perhaps it’s because humans, as much as we like to think of ourselves
as masters of the universe, actually evolved as nothing more
than a pack of hunting dogs. Maybe we evolved as a hunting pack animal. Because the one advantage
we have in the wilderness — again, it’s not our fangs,
our claws or our speed — the only thing we do really well is sweat. We’re really good
at being sweaty and smelly. Better than any other mammal
on Earth, we can sweat really well. But the advantage of that little bit
of social discomfort is the fact that, when it comes to running
under hot heat for long distances, we’re superb — the best on the planet. You take a horse on a hot day, and after about five or six miles,
that horse has a choice: it’s either going to breathe
or it’s going to cool off. But it ain’t doing both. We can. So what if we evolved
as hunting pack animals? What if the only natural advantage
we had in the world was the fact that we could
get together as a group, go out there on that African savanna,
pick out an antelope, go out as a pack,
and run that thing to death? That’s all we could do. We could run really far on a hot day. Well, if that’s true, a couple
other things had to be true as well. The key to being part
of a hunting pack is the word “pack.” If you go out by yourself
and try to chase an antelope, I guarantee there will be two cadavers
out in the savanna. You need a pack to pull together. You need to have
those 64- and 65-year-olds who have been doing this for a long time to understand which antelope
you’re trying to catch. The herd explodes
and it gathers back again. Those expert trackers
have to be part of the pack. They can’t be 10 miles behind. You need the women
and the adolescents there, because the two times in your life
you most benefit from animal protein is when you’re a nursing mother
and a developing adolescent. It makes no sense to have
the antelope over there, dead, and the people who want
to eat it 50 miles away. They need to be part of the pack. You need those 27-year-old studs
at the peak of their powers ready to drop the kill, and you need those teenagers
who are learning the whole thing involved. The pack stays together. Another thing that has to be true:
this pack cannot be materialistic. You can’t be hauling all your crap around,
trying to chase the antelope. You can’t be a pissed-off pack. You can’t be bearing grudges, like,
“I’m not chasing that guy’s antelope. He pissed me off.
Let him go chase his own antelope.” The pack has got to be able
to swallow its ego, be cooperative, and pull together. What you end up with, in other words, is a culture remarkably similar
to the Tarahumara, a tribe that has remained
unchanged since the Stone Age. It’s a really compelling argument that maybe the Tarahumara are doing
exactly what all of us had done for two million years, that it’s us in modern times
who have sort of gone off the path. You know, we look at running
as this kind of alien, foreign thing, this punishment you’ve got to do
because you ate pizza the night before. But maybe it’s something different. Maybe we’re the ones who have taken
this natural advantage we had and we spoiled it. How do we spoil it?
Well, how do we spoil anything? We try to cash in on it. Right? We try to can it and package it
and make it “better” and then sell it to people. And then what happened was,
we started creating these fancy cushioned things
which can make running “better,” called running shoes. The reason I get personally
pissed-off about running shoes is because I bought a million of them
and I kept getting hurt. And I think if anybody in here runs — I just had a conversation with Carol. We talked for two minutes backstage,
and she talked about plantar fasciitis. You talk to a runner,
I guarantee within 30 seconds, the conversation turns to injury. So if humans evolved as runners,
if that’s our one natural advantage, then why are we so bad at it? Why do we keep getting hurt? A curious thing about running
and running injuries is that the running injury
is new to our time. If you read folklore and mythology, any kind of myths, any kind of tall tales, running is always associated
with freedom and vitality and youthfulness and eternal vigor. It’s only in our lifetime
that running has become associated with fear and pain. Geronimo used to say, “My only friends
are my legs. I only trust my legs.” That’s because an Apache triathlon
used to be you’d run 50 miles across the desert, engage in hand-to-hand combat,
steal a bunch of horses, and slap leather for home. Geronimo was never saying, “You know
something, my Achilles — I’m tapering. I’ve got to take this week off.” Or, “I need to cross-train.
I didn’t do yoga. I’m not ready.” (Laughter) Humans ran and ran all the time. We are here today.
We have our digital technology. All of our science comes from the fact that our ancestors were able to do
something extraordinary every day, which was just rely
on their naked feet and legs to run long distances. So how do we get back to that again? Well, I would submit
to you the first thing is: get rid of all packaging,
all the sales, all the marketing. Get rid of all the stinking running shoes. Stop focusing on urban marathons, which, if you do four hours, you suck, and if you do 3:59:59, you’re awesome, because you qualified for another race. We need to get back to that sense
of playfulness and joyfulness and, I would say, nakedness, that has made the Tarahumara one of the healthiest and serene
cultures in our time. So what’s the benefit? So what? So you burn off the Häagen-Dazs
from the night before. But maybe there’s another
benefit there as well. Without getting too extreme about this, imagine a world where everybody
could go out the door and engage in the kind of exercise that’s going to make them
more relaxed, more serene, more healthy, burn off stress — where you don’t come back into your office
a raging maniac anymore, or go home with a lot of stress
on top of you again. Maybe there’s something
between what we are today and what the Tarahumara have always been. I don’t say let’s go back
to the Copper Canyons and live on corn and maize,
which is the Tarahumara’s preferred diet, but maybe there’s somewhere in between. And if we find that thing, maybe there is a big fat
Nobel Prize out there. Because if somebody could find a way
to restore that natural ability that we all enjoyed
for most of our existence up until the 1970s or so, the benefits — social and physical
and political and mental — could be astounding. What I’ve been seeing today
is there is a growing subculture of barefoot runners,
people who’ve gotten rid of their shoes. And what they have found uniformly is, you get rid of the shoes,
you get rid of the stress, you get rid of the injuries
and the ailments. And what you find is something
the Tarahumara have known for a very long time: that this can be a whole lot of fun. I’ve experienced it personally myself. I was injured all my life; then
in my early 40s, I got rid of my shoes and my running ailments
have gone away, too. So hopefully it’s something
we can all benefit from. I appreciate your listening to this story. Thanks very much. (Applause)

100 Comments

  1. I stopped at "that's a fact". Too bad because that started well. Do you research. The fact is the opposite. The bulk of calories came from plants and starch not from "dead animals"…

  2. It's unfortunate that people have forgotten about the 19th century pedestriennes. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d3a1/514454dc89c92ce15a500ca4c95bfb462b3b.pdf

  3. I only run because it is fun. No watch, no headphones. Just my thoughts, my body, and the road. I care more about having a "good" run than a PR.

  4. Before start acting, watch the video in this link TILL END, then you will thank me later. Stay healthy, all. https://youtu.be/Y6U728AZnV0

  5. Seems more likely that we needed to run further because, as herbivores, we needed to cover large distances to find enough wild plants to eat.

  6. I think I'm going to purchase those slip on foot glove looking things and give them a go as opposed to running completely barefoot.

  7. Run when you get caught in the rain. Run to your car when you get off work (because you’re so damn happy!) Other than running for a reason, running is stupid and vain. Go do something real.

  8. hmm, since swallowing ego was mentioned, try considering Isaiah 40:31, 1st corinthians 9:24-27, Hebrews 12:1-2, and as far as the compassion topic, Matthew 22:39, and Phillipians 2:4. just two cents to muse over from this piltdown man.

  9. We need to consider the average life span of humans those times. A runner gets joint pains after he or she crosses the age of mid 40’s. I don’t think people lived that long those days.

  10. As pointed out by Caldewell Esselstyn at least since 2007, the Tarahumara are a plant based people. They eat principally whole plant-based foods. With such a diet there is no atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. You have more anti-oxidants, less inflammation, less susceptibility to cancer, few immune or autoimmune problems — like arthritis, lupus or MS. They are consuming fewer calories but obviously getting enough to support birth and development; since these and other plant-based people have survived for many generations. Now if you practice running, from your teens to your 90's, (or biking-surfing-bowling almost anything) for all that time, you're going to get pretty good at it. Running is just a sideline. It's the same for the Kenyans.

  11. ran barefoot for years untill a piece of glass on the beach disrupted my life for wks… then a year latter a nail in the park impaired my leg and I was forced to rest for way more than I enjoy not exercising..
    finally learnt my lesson.
    now I don't run barefoot. never.
    it's not worth the disruption to one's life

  12. the whole pack didnt take part in the hunt,lt may have been bled and drunk by a few members,probably cut up and transported or taken to a meeting spot to reunite or the group would follow in good time,hopefully before a pack of hyenas stole the kill.

  13. Charismatic yes, well-informed no. Large primates prefer plant based diet. we humans develop scurvy if we survive on meat alone. We are here because of our diet.

  14. I won a marathon with a broken leg and my childhood sweetheart was the paramedic and she was like you’re so much braver than the other guys and I was like yeah I know

  15. I searched up “born to run” hoping to listen to my favorite Springsteen song, but clicked on this video and now I’m educated

  16. How can we get back to running that many miles? I think that if there wouldn't be broken beer bottles and metal and all the pieces that can cut your feet we could run on gras or other soft surfaces without shoes for a little bit more for now and as the years go by we will regain our abilities. But most of the cities are made out of asfalt and it's too hard for our feet to handle without shoes. Let's have a experiment. Get a group of people to a part of Africa where's there's nothing to cut your feet and you're milions of kilometers away from civilization so you have to chase an animal to eat it. In 500 years they'll be just as better as this tribe is better than the 1st world countrie's people is now.

  17. Just did a Google search. The Tarahumara have an average life expectancy of 45. If you're going to hold them up to a pedestal for the non-occurence of certain ailments in their community, you better be explaining or touching upon why it is that they live such short lives then.

  18. We have such tender skin on our feet, it is even praised through media. promotion of foot baths, creams and files, supportive shoes that further weaken the ankles. dont get me wrong it can be nice and good too care for your feet, but it`s come to the point where its even frowned upon if your feet are bare, rough or lack the proper pedicure like feet are seen as something filthy. Why? Could it have something to do with Shoes? 😉 our bodies like to breathe too. if a child is allowed to run barefoot. they develop hard skin that wont hurt even if running on gravel. If you dont use it you loose it. the reason we are weak is mostly a lack of fysical resistence. our bodies adapt to it`s surroundings. it`s true both positively and negatively. we have seen how too much Static movement can be harmful. so moving fokused yet freely should be the best. i really think it is that simple. When that is said, i do see that our society has made it very hard for many to get going, the list is long. But it is possible to overcome for most. first and foremost it`s a mental state. that`s where the biggest challenge lies. At least that is where i have been struggeling the most.

  19. 6:01 Try making that statement in today’s audience 😆
    6:51 Does not like the comment he just made at 6:01 😂

  20. injuries come from bad technique or form.. i also believe people are running too hard and at a high heart rate..

  21. I don't buy it.
    The Tarahumara weren't 6'0 180 lb men. They're simply not carrying the same weight on their frame. Also they wore huaraches , which is minimalistic footwear that maintains the same movement as running barefoot. There's also genetics coming into play here. We know certain groups of people tend to be better runners and their cultures/environment select for those traits. Try getting an Eskimo to run and see how well they do. Their culture just doesn't have any value on traits that make good runners. Ultra-distance running, most animals just can't do that, and while Tarahumara used their speed to run animals into exhaustion, that's in the single digit mile range, if even that.

  22. Connecting with earth is reducing inflammation in the body.That's why you get stronger and you don't have injuries.

  23. Humans are fine-tuned to be the optimal carriers of genetic information across every type of local ecosystem on Earth.

    With the onset of innovation we've breached the Earth's opalescent horizon, virtually rendered Rindler horizon world lines to the point of light cone diffraction by full emotional immersion, and collaborated internationally to capture accretion disk light spiraling and crystallizing into a singularity black hole cosmic horizon. Our locality shrinks and converges and tugs on our bodies according to the Harmonic Oscillator underlying all physics, harmonics, and mathematics.

  24. running success is as selective
    as is height for basketball… just look
    at any street when the "runners" are out
    and youll see 2/3 to 90+% who SHOULDNT
    BE RUNNING FOR FITNESS… there are far
    safer and more effective ways the build
    strength/stamina/suppleness for most
    who are NOT built to run

  25. Or, what if animals weren't afraid of humans until after the great flood, when God put fear in animals, for their own protection?

  26. The presented hypothesis is thought provoking and the speaker ties the concepts very well, but comments about Derartu are not accurate. Athlete Derartu Tulu (or according to the speaker, the under under dog/the poor Ethiopian woman) is a two time 10k Olympic Gold medalist and a renowned philanthropist. She was Africa's first black female athlete to win an Olympic gold medal in 1992. Her legacy spans over 2 decades and she's still going strong! Just last week, she became the recipient of Africa Impact award from the Mayor of Washington DC. I understand the speaker is trying to make a point and that the scope of his TED talk is far beyond Derartu, but I found his assumptions about her quiet misleading.

  27. Awful lot of reaching going on in this argument. Running with bare feet=fewer injuries? Point me to a place in NYC where that's possible.

  28. Humanity is still, on the big scale of its history, adapting to its rapid growth in technologies that affected its nourishment behavior as much as anything else in its life, the kind of work we do to live instead of chassing food in the country, the kind of leisure we indulge in arguing how much we deserve it, because we have passed the point of an entertainment age. There are still a lot of reconciliation to do in our doings to adapt to a healthier life style but it's certainly not because there is no known ways or documented knowledge. For me, martial arts (Kung-Fu and Chi Qong) have been very beneficial in my lifetime, now at 42 years old, still kicking high above my head without problem, and Rice has been a very beneficial meal, although sometimes boring on a constant diet. Ultimately, we all die, but you can make small choices to help you go a long run, it does not mean you have to sacrifice anything for an ideology but rather make according decisions toward observations and results you want and seek in your life. Enjoy while you still can 🙂

  29. The way he is talking about Derartu Tulu as if she was nobody is really bizaraa! She was the olympic gold medalist at 10 000 me in sydney, adn aslo in 1992 olympic. She is literally a legend!

  30. He is forgetting the fact that those ancient people's life expectancy was way lower. Running bare foot, not using any modern techniques of recoverry was probably causing them to die at a very young age!!

  31. The question was were we born to run. The answer is yes, but it's not so much about the feet it's more about the gluteus maximus, our butts. Our butt muscles are very large compared to that of a gazelle. So a gazelle can run very quickly for short distances, but our butt muscles allows us to run longer distances. So like he was saying before, but got sidetracked on feet, we would run the animal to death. They have to stop and pant. and then that's when you can pretty much walk up to an animal and kill them with a rock or something.

  32. Best women are generally about 30 seconds slower than best men for most distances including the marathon. And of course 30 seconds slower per mile means best women can beat 99% of men runners, but that's still hundreds of men who are faster that the fastest women.

  33. I started running 6 months ago at 24 after 3 kids. Spent too much on running shoes, have been thinking about barefoot running.
    Thank you so much for this awesome information!

  34. I agree with the idea of simplifying your running, but beware not to take it to the extreme. I run ultramarathons and I am a total amateur, but without my cushioned shoes I would have not been able to run for the last 5 years injury-free. I love the idea but I am not ready to jog for 30 miles without shoes.

  35. 04:08, i think you should mention that heart disease, cancer and other modern ailments are actually specific for job offices, large cities, soda drinks and mccdonalds food. Those we consider having a lower IQ actually live longer than we do, proving we are not smart at all. We live in a reality made by pharmaceutical companies and television, in which the way of solving health problems is taking pills made by them. The real reality is that those we call "underdeveloped" live 100 years, while we die from stroke at 35.

    15:00 How can this guy be so ignorant? Everything we have, proves this: Closer we are to the nature, happier we are, and longer we live. Thats so SIMPLE.

  36. I was a pro-Thai Boxer and lived and trained in Thailand for many years. The Thai Boxing regime demands a warm-up of a run before training. 10km in the morning and 5 km in the evening. They train every day so are doing good monthly mileage. However, despite doing a sport where they actually get kicked in the legs I noticed they have very little leg injuries and none of the common running-related injuries. It dawned on me that they actually employ a barefoot running style. They are not interested in fast times as its a warm-up. They didn't use to have running shoes so were either barefoot or wore flip flops. I am sure they are reaping all the advantages of barefoot running that you advocate but probably don't even know it.

  37. The arc of my foot is so bent, that if I walk/run barefoot or with flat shoes I get injuries and my running is limited.

  38. Awesome! Running barefoot is surely a nice thing to say but in actual fact it would not be practical. For one thing our feet would become much stronger and bigger and would not fit in shoes anymore so that would be a problem. I think we should all become obese by eating a lot of sugar and depend on the pharmaceutical products to keep us alive. We should elect a president that put walls around the country so nobody come to visit that way nobody will notice how big we are. Having said that I have already ran out of the country so at least running is extremely useful.

    On a more serious note, you are a very clever fellow I surely hope that you find all your answers. In the interim I will keep trail running for no other reasons that it makes me feel good. Have a pleasant day my friend.

  39. The running barefoot thing is so true! I run cross country and we were running barefoot on the football field and it felt so good!

  40. Their uterus may not fall out, but they don't need it anyway. Their periods disappeared years ago. Nature's way of saying, "Don't do this."

    I don't think this answers the question asked. Primitive people only run long distances out of necessity, such as persistence hunting. But born to run? Nah?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


*